Pages. Direct Quotations. A direct quotation reproduces the words of When you include a direct quotation in a paper, include the author, date.
Table of contents
- APA: Citing Within Your Paper
- On This Page
- How to Cite a Page Number in an Essay | Pen and the Pad
- Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper
How to Write a Bibliography in Bluebook. How to Cite the U. Census Bureau in APA.
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- APA: Chapter.
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How to Cite a Page Number in an Essay. Accessed 19 October Watson-Price, Erin.
APA: Citing Within Your Paper
Note: Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name. Tips For either MLA or APA format, if you state relevant citation information within the sentence you are referencing or before the quotation, you do not need to repeat the information within the citation.
About the Author. Online Citation Generator. How to Write Footnotes for a Report. All APA Style in-text citations have two parts: the author and the date. Some in-text citations also include page numbers or other location information when page numbers are not available, as with some online materials. This post describes when and how to include page numbers in APA Style for different kinds of citations as well as how to include the appropriate location information in lieu of page numbers when page numbers are not available.
A direct quotation reproduces the words of another writer verbatim and is displayed in quotation marks if the quotation is fewer than 40 words or as a block quotation if the quotation is 40 words or more. When you include a direct quotation in a paper, include the author, date, and page number on which the quotation can be found or other location information in the citation.
There are many ways to cite a direct quotation; see more examples here. For example, you might put a sentence into your own words, or you might summarize what another author or set of authors found. When you include a paraphrase in a paper, you are required to include only the author and date in the citation.
You are encouraged but not required to also provide the page number or other location information for a paraphrased citation when it would help the reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text such as when you use only a short part of a book. There is no absolute rule as to what constitutes a "lengthy quote" - some teachers say a quote is lengthy if it exceeds four or five typed lines; others, if it exceeds forty words or four sentences. The point is: once a quote becomes unusually lengthy it is formatted as a block quote.
A block quote is a lengthy quote that is visually set off from the rest of your paper.
On This Page
It is single-spaced rather than double-spaced, like the rest of your paper and indented an additional half inch so that it visually draws attention to itself on the page. The objective is to signal to the reader, even from a distance, that what follows is a lengthy quote. Chinese-American historian Iris Chang offers the following statistics in her effort to illustrate the full scope of the Nanking massacre:. Note that, in MLA, as shown above,the final punctuation of a block quote - unlike the punctuation for a regular short quote - is placed immediately after the end of the last sentence, preceding not following the parenthetical reference.
Sometimes it is necessary to modify the wording of a quote in order to make it flow more smoothly, to add relevant information, to change its tense to suit the point you are trying to make, or to ensure that its transition in or out of your prose is grammatically correct.
Writing in , Iris Chang was undoubtedly correct that Japan's version of the Nanking Massacre exemplified "how the Japanese, as a people [ once ] manage[ d ], nurture[ d ], and sustain[ ed ] their collective amnesia-even denial-when confronted with the record of their behavior through [ the ] period [ of World War II ]. Notice that the material added is placed in square brackets, visually indicating to the reader that it is not part of the original text.
Notice also that, although we have altered the tense of the quote from present to past and through the addition of the word "once" , changed an article from "that" to "the" , and added information to specify the World War II period we have not fundamentally altered the original meaning of the quote, which remains clearly discernible. The rule, again: any modifications to a quote must be placed within square brackets. You can modify, as long as you do not change a quote's meaning.neuspermalma.tk
How to Cite a Page Number in an Essay | Pen and the Pad
On this, see also The Ethics of Quoting. Another way in which you can modify a quote is by skipping material.
- How to Cite a Page Number in an Essay.
- How to Cite a Chapter in Print in APA Format.
Perhaps the quote is too long, or perhaps it contains unnecessarily detailed information: there are many reasons why you may wish to skip part of a quote, and as long as you do not alter the original meaning of the passage , you are free to do so. The rule: Indicate that you have skipped material within a quote by placing three periods an ellipsis in place of the missing material.
Do not place an ellipsis at the beginning or end of a quote, ever: only to indicate skipped material in the middle of a quote.
Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper
If you wish to skip part of this quote the parenthetical comment, for example indicate its omission through the use of an ellipsis:. Writing of the Nanking massacre in , Iris Chang describes "Corpses piled up outside the city walls, along the river Advanced Quoting Skills. No one saw "mountains of dead bodies" or "rivers of blood". According to Japanese scholar Tanaka Masaaki, "No one saw ' mountains of dead bodies' or 'rivers of blood' " Masaaki Ch.
Chinese-American historian Iris Chang offers the following statistics in her effort to illustrate the full scope of the Nanking massacre: One historian has estimated that if the dead from Nanking were to link hands they would stretch from Nanking to the city of Hangchow, spanning a distance of some two hundred miles.